There are as many training philosophies are there are trainers. Everyone is going to have a different method, but the most important thing to remember is to pick a method and stick with it. Consistency is the key in training!
I am not a fan of negative reinforcement, but I do use a prong collar and negative associations to correct the dog - our word is "AH AH" when the dogs misbehave. Some trainers advise against both of these and they don't work fore very dog. A prong collar should ONLY be used under the supervision of an experienced trainer - please do not attempt to use one on your own, as you could cause serious injury to your dog.
Here are some helpful links to get you started. If you have any to add, feel free to mention them in the comments and I'll update this post accordingly. All links open in a new window.
Leerburg - Leerburg philosophy is somewhat more corporal than others and works well with strong, protective working breeds, such as German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers, Rottweilers, etc. The psychology behind this training works with many other breeds, however, and it's definitely worth checking out.
KikoPup - This is an excellent video resource for anything you might want to teach your dog. The trainer, Emily Larlham, works with many different dogs in many situations. She uses NO negative reinforcement whatsoever and uses a clicker as a marker for positive behavior.
Canine Good Citizen - Canine Good Citizen is a program designed to help dogs and their handlers create and recognize a well rounded, well mannered dog. Run by the AKC, it's open to all breeds and mixes. The site lists trainers and groups that will help get your dog on the path to being a CGC!